Fire Safety OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910 Subpart E

Part Number: 1910
• Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards
• Subpart: E & L
• Subpart Title: Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans
• Standard Number: 1910 Subpart E
• Title: Authority for 1910 Subpart E

For employee training materials on Workplace Fire Safety, please click here.


This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of subpart E.

1910.38 Employee emergency plans

1. “Emergency action plan elements.” The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. Examples are: fire; toxic chemical releases; hurricanes; tornadoes; blizzards; floods; and others. The elements of the emergency action plan presented in paragraph 1910.38(c) can be supplemented by the following to more effectively achieve employee safety and health in an emergency. The employer should list in detail the procedures to be taken by those employees who have been selected to remain behind to care for essential plant operations until their evacuation becomes absolutely necessary. Essential plant operations may include the monitoring of plant power supplies, water supplies, and other essential services which cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm. Essential plant operations may also include chemical or manufacturing processes which must be shut down in stages or steps where certain employees must be present to assure that safe shut down procedures are completed.

The use of floor plans or workplace maps which clearly show the emergency escape routes should be included in the emergency action plan. Color coding will aid employees in determining their route assignments.

The employer should also develop and explain in detail what rescue and medical first aid duties are to be performed and by whom. All employees are to be told what actions they are to take in these emergency situations that the employer anticipates may occur in the workplace.

2. “Emergency evacuation.” At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some cases where the emergency is very grave, total and immediate evacuation of all employees is necessary. In other emergencies, a partial evacuation of nonessential employees with a delayed evacuation of others may be necessary for continued plant operation. In some cases, only those employees in the immediate area of the fire may be expected to evacuate or move to a safe area such as when a local application fire suppression system discharge employee alarm is sounded. Employees must be sure that they know what is expected of them in all such emergency possibilities which have been planned in order to provide assurance of their safety from fire or other emergency.

The designation of refuge or safe areas for evacuation should be determined and identified in the plan. In a building divided into fire zones by fire walls, the refuge area may still be within the same building but in a different zone from where the emergency occurs.

Exterior refuge or safe areas may include parking lots, open fields or streets which are located away from the site of the emergency and which provide sufficient space to accommodate the employees. Employees should be instructed to move away from the exit discharge doors of the building, and to avoid congregating close to the building where they may hamper emergency operations.

3. “Emergency action plan training.” The employer should assure that an adequate number of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuation wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the safe areas. Generally, one warden for each twenty employees in the workplace should be able to provide adequate guidance and instruction at the time of a fire emergency. The employees selected or who volunteer to serve as wardens should be trained in the complete workplace layout and the various alternative escape routes from the workplace. All wardens and fellow employees should be made aware of handicapped employees who may need extra assistance, such as using the buddy system, and of hazardous areas to be avoided during emergencies. Before leaving, wardens should check rooms and other enclosed spaces in the workplace for employees who may be trapped or otherwise unable to evacuate the area.

After the desired degree of evacuation is completed, the wardens should be able to account for or otherwise verify that all employees are in the safe areas.

In buildings with several places of employment, employers are encouraged to coordinate their plans with the other employers in the building. A building-wide or standardized plan for the whole building is acceptable provided that the employers inform their respective employees of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. The standardized plan need not be kept by each employer in the multi-employer building, provided there is an accessible location within the building where the plan can be reviewed by affected employees. When multi-employer building-wide plans are not feasible, employers should coordinate their plans with the other employers within the building to assure that conflicts and confusion are avoided during times of emergencies. In multi-story buildings where more than one employer is on a single floor, it is essential that these employers coordinate their plans with each other to avoid conflicts and confusion.

4. “Fire prevention housekeeping.” The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials.

It is the intent of this standard to assure that hazardous accumulations of combustible waste materials are controlled so that a fast developing fire, rapid spread of toxic smoke, or an explosion will not occur. This does not necessarily mean that each room has to be swept each day. Employers and employees should be aware of the hazardous properties of materials in their workplaces, and the degree of hazard each poses. Certainly oil soaked rags have to be treated differently than general paper trash in office areas. However, large accumulations of waste paper or corrugated boxes, etc., can pose a significant fire hazard. Accumulations of materials which can cause large fires or generate dense smoke that are easily ignited or may start from spontaneous combustion, are the types of materials with which this standard is concerned. Such combustible materials may be easily ignited by matches, welder’s sparks, cigarettes and similar low level energy ignition sources.

5. “Maintenance of equipment under the fire prevention plan.” Certain equipment is often installed in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks. An example is a temperature limit switch often found on deep-fat food fryers found in restaurants. There may be similar switches for high temperature dip tanks, or flame failure and flashback arrester devices on furnaces and similar heat producing equipment. If these devices are not properly maintained or if they become inoperative, a definite fire hazard exists. Again employees and supervisors should be aware of the specific type of control devices on equipment involved with combustible materials in the workplace and should make sure, through periodic inspection or testing, that these controls are operable. Manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed to assure proper maintenance procedures.
§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered.
(b) Exit routes are covered.
(c) Definitions.

§ 1910.35 Compliance with NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements.
(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate.
(c) Exit discharge.
(d) An exit door must be unlocked.
(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.
(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.
(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.
(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized.
(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.
(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained.
(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.
(e) An employee alarm system must be operable.

§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans.

(a) Application.
(b) Written and oral emergency action plans.
(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.
(d) Employee alarm system.
(e) Training.
(f) Review of emergency action plan.

§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application.
(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans.
(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan.
(d) Employee information.

1910.34(a)

Every employer is covered. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to workplaces in general industry except mobile workplaces such as vehicles or vessels.

1910.34(b)

Exits routes are covered. The rules in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39 cover the minimum requirements for exit routes that employers must provide in their workplace so that employees may evacuate the workplace safely during an emergency. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 also cover the minimum requirements for emergency action plans and fire prevention plans.

1910.34(c)

Definitions.

Electroluminescent means a light-emitting capacitor. Alternating current excites phosphor atoms when placed between the electrically conductive surfaces to produce light. This light source is typically contained inside the device.

Exit means that portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. An example of an exit is a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that leads from the fifth floor of an office building to the outside of the building.

Exit access means that portion of an exit route that leads to an exit. An example of an exit access is a corridor on the fifth floor of an office building that leads to a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway (the Exit).

Exit discharge means the part of the exit route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. An example of an exit discharge is a door at the bottom of a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that discharges to a place of safety outside the building.

Exit route means a continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). An exit route consists of three parts: The exit access; the exit; and, the exit discharge. (An exit route includes all vertical and horizontal areas along the route.)

High hazard area means an area inside a workplace in which operations include high hazard materials, processes, or contents.

Occupant load means the total number of persons that may occupy a workplace or portion of a workplace at any one time. The occupant load of a workplace is calculated by dividing the gross floor area of the workplace or portion of a workplace by the occupant load factor for that particular type of workplace occupancy. Information regarding “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

Refuge area means either:

1910.34(c)(1)

A space along an exit route that is protected from the effects of fire by separation from other spaces within the building by a barrier with at least a one-hour fire resistance-rating; or

1910.34(c)(2)

A floor with at least two spaces, separated from each other by smoke-resistant partitions, in a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system that complies with § 1910.159 of this part.

Self-luminous means a light source that is illuminated by a self-contained power source (e.g., tritium) and that operates independently from external power sources. Batteries are not acceptable self-contained power sources. The light source is typically contained inside the device.

An employer who demonstrates compliance with the exit route provisions of NFPA 101-2000, the Life Safety Code, will be deemed to be in compliance with the corresponding requirements in §§ 1910.34, 1910.36, and 1910.37.

1910.36(a)

Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design and construction requirements:

1910.36(a)(1)

An exit route must be permanent. Each exit route must be a permanent part of the workplace.

1910.36(a)(2)

An exit must be separated by fire resistant materials. Construction materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects four or more stories.

1910.36(a)(3)

Openings into an exit must be limited. An exit is permitted to have only those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from occupied areas of the workplace, or to the exit discharge. An opening into an exit must be protected by a self-closing fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency upon the sounding of a fire alarm or employee alarm system. Each fire door, including its frame and hardware, must be listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Section 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) of this part defines “listed” and § 1910.7 of this part defines a “nationally recognized testing laboratory.”

1910.36(b)

The number of exit routes must be adequate.

1910.36(b)(1)

Two exit routes. At least two exit routes must be available in a workplace to permit prompt evacuation of employees and other building occupants during an emergency, except as allowed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The exit routes must be located as far away as practical from each other so that if one exit route is blocked by fire or smoke, employees can evacuate using the second exit route.

..1910.36(b)(2)

1910.36(b)(2)

More than two exit routes. More than two exit routes must be available in a workplace if the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would not be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

1910.36(b)(3)

A single exit route. A single exit route is permitted where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

Note to paragraph 1910.36(b): For assistance in determining the number of exit routes necessary for your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

1910.36(c)

Exit discharge.

1910.36(c)(1)

Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside.

1910.36(c)(2)

The street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space to which an exit discharge leads must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the exit route.

1910.36(c)(3)

Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge.

1910.36(d)

An exit door must be unlocked.

1910.36(d)(1)

Employees must be able to open an exit route door from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge. A device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted on exit discharge doors.

1910.36(d)(2)

Exit route doors must be free of any device or alarm that could restrict emergency use of the exit route if the device or alarm fails.

1910.36(d)(3)

An exit route door may be locked from the inside only in mental, penal, or correctional facilities and then only if supervisory personnel are continuously on duty and the employer has a plan to remove occupants from the facility during an emergency.

1910.36(e)

A side-hinged exit door must be used.

1910.36(e)(1)

A side-hinged door must be used to connect any room to an exit route.

1910.36(e)(2)

The door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or if the room is a high hazard area (i.e., contains contents that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or explode).

1910.36(f)

The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.

1910.36(f)(1)

Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served.

1910.36(f)(2)

The capacity of an exit route may not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge.

Note to paragraph 1910.36(f): Information regarding “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

..1910.36(g)

1910.36(g)

An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.

1910.36(g)(1)

The ceiling of an exit route must be at least seven feet six inches (2.3 m) high. Any projection from the ceiling must not reach a point less than six feet eight inches (2.0 m) from the floor.

1910.36(g)(2)

An exit access must be at least 28 inches (71.1 cm) wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least equal to the width of the exit access.

1910.36(g)(3)

The width of an exit route must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum permitted occupant load of each floor served by the exit route.

1910.36(g)(4)

Objects that project into the exit route must not reduce the width of the exit route to less than the minimum width requirements for exit routes.

1910.36(h)

An outdoor exit route is permitted.

1910.36(h)(1)

The outdoor exit route must have guardrails to protect unenclosed sides if a fall hazard exists;

1910.36(h)(2)

The outdoor exit route must be covered if snow or ice is likely to accumulate along the route, unless the employer can demonstrate that any snow or ice accumulation will be removed before it presents a slipping hazard;

1910.36(h)(3)

The outdoor exit route must be reasonably straight and have smooth, solid, substantially level walkways; and

1910.36(h)(4)

The outdoor exit route must not have a dead-end that is longer than 20 feet (6.2 m).

1910.37(a)

The danger to employees must be minimized.

1910.37(a)(1)

Exit routes must be kept free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or other decorations.

1910.37(a)(2)

Exit routes must be arranged so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard area, unless the path of travel is effectively shielded from the high hazard area by suitable partitions or other physical barriers.

1910.37(a)(3)

Exit routes must be free and unobstructed. No materials or equipment may be placed, either permanently or temporarily, within the exit route. The exit access must not go through a room that can be locked, such as a bathroom, to reach an exit or exit discharge, nor may it lead into a dead-end corridor. Stairs or a ramp must be provided where the exit route is not substantially level.

1910.37(a)(4)

Safeguards designed to protect employees during an emergency (e.g., sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire doors, exit lighting) must be in proper working order at all times.

1910.37(b)

Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.

1910.37(b)(1)

Each exit route must be adequately lighted so that an employee with normal vision can see along the exit route.

1910.37(b)(2)

Each exit must be clearly visible and marked by a sign reading “Exit.”

1910.37(b)(3)

Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the exit route door.

1910.37(b)(4)

If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit and exit discharge. Additionally, the line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times.

1910.37(b)(5)

Each doorway or passage along an exit access that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked “Not an Exit” or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet).

1910.37(b)(6)

Each exit sign must be illuminated to a surface value of at least five foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light source and be distinctive in color. Self-luminous or electroluminescent signs that have a minimum luminance surface value of at least .06 footlamberts (0.21 cd/m2) are permitted.

1910.37(b)(7)

Each exit sign must have the word “Exit” in plainly legible letters not less than six inches (15.2 cm) high, with the principal strokes of the letters in the word “Exit” not less than three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm) wide.

1910.37(c)

The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained. Fire retardant paints or solutions must be renewed as often as necessary to maintain their fire retardant properties.

1910.37(d)

Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.

1910.37(d)(1)

During new construction, employees must not occupy a workplace until the exit routes required by this subpart are completed and ready for employee use for the portion of the workplace they occupy.

1910.37(d)(2)

During repairs or alterations, employees must not occupy a workplace unless the exit routes required by this subpart are available and existing fire protections are maintained, or until alternate fire protection is furnished that provides an equivalent level of safety.

1910.37(d)(3)

Employees must not be exposed to hazards of flammable or explosive substances or equipment used during construction, repairs, or alterations, that are beyond the normal permissible conditions in the workplace, or that would impede exiting the workplace.

1910.37(e)

An employee alarm system must be operable. Employers must install and maintain an operable employee alarm system that has a distinctive signal to warn employees of fire or other emergencies, unless employees can promptly see or smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide adequate warning to them. The employee alarm system must comply with § 1910.165.

1910.38(a)

Application. An employer must have an emergency action plan whenever an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such emergency action plan.

1910.38(b)

Written and oral emergency action plans. An emergency action plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

1910.38(c)

Minimum elements of an emergency action plan. An emergency action plan must include at a minimum:

1910.38(c)(1)

Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;

..1910.38 (c)(2)

1910.38(c)(2)

Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments;

1910.38(c)(3)

Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate;

1910.38(c)(4)

Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;

1910.38(c)(5)

Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties; and

1910.38(c)(6)

The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan.

1910.38(d)

Employee alarm system. An employer must have and maintain an employee alarm system. The employee alarm system must use a distinctive signal for each purpose and comply with the requirements in § 1910.165.

1910.38(e)

Training. An employer must designate and train employees to assist in a safe and orderly evacuation of other employees.

1910.38(f)

Review of emergency action plan. An employer must review the emergency action plan with each employee covered by the plan:

1910.38(f)(1)

When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to a job;

1910.38(f)(2)

When the employee’s responsibilities under the plan change; and

1910.38(f)(3)

When the plan is changed.

1910.39(a)

Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such fire prevention plan.

1910.39(b)

Written and oral fire prevention plans. A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace, and be made available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

1910.39(c)

Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan. A fire prevention plan must include:

1910.39(c)(1)

A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard;

1910.39(c)(2)

Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials;

1910.39(c)(3)

Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of combustible materials;

1910.39(c)(4)

The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires; and

1910.39(c)(5)

The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.

1910.39(d)

Employee information. An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are exposed. An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.

Part Number: 1910
• Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards
• Subpart: L
• Subpart Title: Fire Protection
• Standard Number: 1910 Subpart L
• Title: Authority for 1910 Subpart L

1910.155(a)

Scope. This subpart contains requirements for fire brigades, and all portable and fixed fire suppression equipment, fire detection systems, and fire or employee alarm systems installed to meet the fire protection requirements of 29 CFR Part 1910.

1910.155(b)

Application. This subpart applies to all employments except for maritime, construction, and agriculture.

1910.155(c)

Definitions applicable to this subpart.

1910.155(c)(1)

“After-flame” means the time a test specimen continues to flame after the flame source has been removed.

1910.155(c)(2)

“Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)” means a fluorinated surfactant with a foam stabilizer which is diluted with water to act as a temporary barrier to exclude air from mixing with the fuel vapor by developing an aqueous film on the fuel surface of some hydrocarbons which is capable of suppressing the generation of fuel vapors.

1910.155(c)(3)

“Approved” means acceptable to the Assistant Secretary under the following criteria:

..1910.155(c)(3)(i)

1910.155(c)(3)(i)

If it is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or

1910.155(c)(3)(ii)

With respect to an installation or equipment of a kind which no nationally recognized testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels,or determines to be safe, if it is inspected or tested by another Federal agency and found in compliance with the provisions of the applicable National Fire Protection Association Fire Code; or

1910.155(c)(3)(iii)

With respect to custom-made equipment or related installations which are designed, fabricated for, and intended for use by its manufacturer on the basis of test data which the employer keeps and makes available for inspection to the Assistant Secretary.

1910.155(c)(3)(iv)

For the purposes of paragraph (c)(3) of this section:

1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A)

Equipment is listed if it is of a kind mentioned in a list which is published by a nationally recognized testing laboratory which makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment and which states that such equipment meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found safe for use in a specified manner;

..1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(B)

1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(B)

Equipment is labeled if there is attached to it a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory which makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner;

1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(C)

Equipment is accepted if it has been inspected and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to conform to specified plans or to procedures of applicable codes; and

1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(D)

Equipment is certified if it has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner or is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and if it bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.

1910.155(c)(4)

“Assistant Secretary” means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health or designee.

1910.155(c)(5)

“Automatic fire detection device” means a device designed to automatically detect the presence of fire by heat, flame, light, smoke or other products of combustion.

1910.155(c)(6)

“Buddy-breathing device” means an accessory to self-contained breathing apparatus which permits a second person to share the same air supply as that of the wearer of the apparatus.

..1910.155(c)(7)

1910.155(c)(7)

“Carbon dioxide” means a colorless, odorless, electrically nonconductive inert gas (chemical formula CO(2)) that is a medium for extinguishing fires by reducing the concentration of oxygen or fuel vapor in the air to the point where combustion is impossible.

1910.155(c)(8)

“Class A fire” means a fire involving ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cloth, and some rubber and plastic materials.

1910.155(c)(9)

“Class B fire” means a fire involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases and similar materials, and some rubber and plastic materials.

1910.155(c)(10)

“Class C fire” means a fire involving energized electrical equipment where safety to the employee requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing media.

1910.155(c)(11)

“Class D fire” means a fire involving combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium and potassium.

1910.155(c)(12)

“Dry chemical” means an extinguishing agent composed of very small particles of chemicals such as, but not limited to, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-based potassium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or monoammonium phosphate supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing and moisture absorption (caking) as well as to provide proper flow capabilities. Dry chemical does not include dry powders.

..1910.155(c)(13)

1910.155(c)(13)

“Dry powder” means an compound used to extinguish or control Class D fires.

1910.155(c)(14)

“Education” means the process of imparting knowledge or skill through systematic instruction. It does not require formal classroom instruction.

1910.155(c)(15)

“Enclosed structure” means a structure with a roof or ceiling and at least two walls which may present fire hazards to employees, such as accumulations of smoke, toxic gases and heat, similar to those found in buildings.

1910.155(c)(16)

“Extinguisher classification” means the letter classification given an extinguisher to designate the class or classes of fire on which an extinguisher will be effective.

1910.155(c)(17)

“Extinguisher rating” means the numerical rating given to an extinguisher which indicates the extinguishing potential of the unit based on standardized tests developed by Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc.

1910.155(c)(18)

“Fire brigade” (private fire department, industrial fire department) means an organized group of employees who are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in at least basic fire fighting operations.

..1910.155(c)(19)

1910.155(c)(19)

“Fixed extinguishing system” means a permanently installed system that either extinguishes or controls a fire at the location of the system.

1910.155(c)(20)

“Flame resistance” is the property of materials, or combinations of component materials, to retard ignition and restrict the spread of flame.

1910.155(c)(21)

“Foam” means a stable aggregation of small bubbles which flow freely over a burning liquid surface and form a coherent blanket which seals combustible vapors and thereby extinguishes the fire.

1910.155(c)(22)

“Gaseous agent” is a fire extinguishing agent which is in the gaseous state at normal room temperature and pressure. It has low viscosity, can expand or contract with changes in pressure and temperature, and has the ability to diffuse readily and to distribute itself uniformly throughout an enclosure.

1910.155(c)(23)

“Halon 1211” means a colorless, faintly sweet smelling, electrically nonconductive liquefied gas (chemical formula CBrC1F(2)) which is a medium for extinguishing fires by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of fuel and oxygen. It is also known as bromochlorodifluoromethane.

..1910.155(c)(24)

1910.155(c)(24)

“Halon 1301” means a colorless, odorless, electrically nonconductive gas (chemical formula CBrF(3)) which is a medium for extinguishing fires by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of fuel and oxygen. It is also known as bromotrifluoromethane.

1910.155(c)(25)

“Helmet” is a head protective device consisting of a rigid shell, energy absorption system, and chin strap intended to be worn to provide protection for the head or portions thereof, against impact, flying or falling objects, electric shock, penetration, heat and flame.

1910.155(c)(26)

“Incipient stage fire” means a fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose systems without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.

1910.155(c)(27)

“Inspection” means a visual check of fire protection systems and equipment to ensure that they are in place, charged, and ready for use in the event of a fire.

1910.155(c)(28)

“Interior structural fire fighting” means the physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage.

1910.155(c)(29)

“Lining” means a material permanently attached to the inside of the outer shell of a garment for the purpose of thermal protection and padding.

..1910.155(c)(30)

1910.155(c)(30)

“Local application system” means a fixed fire suppression system which has a supply of extinguishing agent, with nozzles arranged to automatically discharge extinguishing agent directly on the burning material to extinguish or control a fire.

1910.155(c)(31)

“Maintenance” means the performance of services on fire protection equipment and systems to assure that they will perform as expected in the event of a fire. Maintenance differs from inspection in that maintenance requires the checking of internal fittings, devices and agent supplies.

1910.155(c)(32)

“Multipurpose dry chemical” means a dry chemical which is approved for use on Class A, Class B and Class C fires.

1910.155(c)(33)

“Outer shell” is the exterior layer of material on the fire coat and protective trousers which forms the outermost barrier between the fire fighter and the environment. It is attached to the vapor barrier and liner and is usually constructed with a storm flap, suitable closures, and pockets.

1910.155(c)(34)

“Positive-pressure breathing apparatus” means self-contained breathing apparatus in which the pressure in the breathing zone is positive in relation to the immediate environment during inhalation and exhalation.

..1910.155(c)(35)

1910.155(c)(35)

“Pre-discharge employee alarm” means an alarm which will sound at a set time prior to actual discharge of an extinguishing system so that employees may evacuate the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.155(c)(36)

“Quick disconnect valve” means a device which starts the flow of air by inserting of the hose (which leads from the facepiece) into the regulator of self-contained breathing apparatus, and stops the flow of air by disconnection of the hose from the regulator.

1910.155(c)(37)

“Sprinkler alarm” means an approved device installed so that any waterflow from a sprinkler system equal to or greater than that from single automatic sprinkler will result in an audible alarm signal on the premises.

1910.155(c)(38)

“Sprinkler system” means a system of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards and installed to control or extinguish fires. The system includes an adequate and reliable water supply, and a network of specially sized piping and sprinklers which are interconnected. The system also includes a control valve and a device for actuating an alarm when the system is in operation.

1910.155(c)(39)

“Standpipe systems”.

1910.155(c)(39)(i)

“Class I standpipe system” means a 2 1/2″ (6.3 cm) hose connection for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

..1910.155(c)(39)(ii)

1910.155(c)(39)(ii)

“Class II standpipe system” means a 1 1/2 inch (3.8 cm) hose system which provides a means for the control or extinguishment of incipient stage fires.

1910.155(c)(39)(iii)

“Class III standpipe system” means a combined system of hose which is for the use of employees trained in the use of hose operations and which is capable of furnishing effective water discharge during the more advanced stages of fire (beyond the incipient stage) in the interior of workplaces. Hose outlets are available for both 1 1/2″ (3.8 cm) and 2 1/2″ (6.3 cm) hose.

1910.155(c)(39)(iv)

“Small hose system” means a system of hose ranging in diameter from 5/8″ (1.6 cm up to 1 1/2″ (3.8 cm) which is for the use of employees and which provides a means for the control and extinguishment of incipient stage fires.

1910.155(c)(40)

“Total flooding system” means a fixed suppression system which is arranged to automatically discharge a predetermined concentration of agent into an enclosed space for the purpose of fire extinguishment or control.

1910.155(c)(41)

“Training” means the process of making proficient through instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment, including respiratory protection equipment, that is expected to be used and in the performance of assigned duties.

..1910.155(c)(42)

1910.155(c)(42)

“Vapor barrier” means that material used to prevent or substantially inhibit the transfer of water, corrosive liquids and steam or other hot vapors from the outside of a garment to the wearer’s body.

1910.156(a)

Scope and application –

1910.156(a)(1)

Scope. This section contains requirements for the organization, training, and personal protective equipment of fire brigades whenever they are established by an employer.

1910.156(a)(2)

Application. The requirements of this section apply to fire brigades, industrial fire departments and private or contractual type fire departments. Personal protective equipment requirements apply only to members of fire brigades performing interior structural fire fighting. The requirements of this section do not apply to airport crash rescue or forest fire fighting operations.

..1910.156(b)

1910.156(b)

Organization –

1910.156(b)(1)

Organizational statement. The employer shall prepare and maintain a statement or written policy which establishes the existence of a fire brigade; the basic organizational structure; the type, amount, and frequency of training to be provided to fire brigade members; the expected number of members in the fire brigade; and the functions that the fire brigade is to perform at the workplace. The organizational statement shall be available for inspection by the Assistant Secretary and by employees or their designated representatives.

1910.156(b)(2)

Personnel. The employer shall assure that employees who are expected to do interior structural fire fighting are physically capable of performing duties which may be assigned to them during emergencies. The employer shall not permit employees with known heart disease, epilepsy, or emphysema, to participate in fire brigade emergency activities unless a physician’s certificate of the employees’ fitness to participate in such activities is provided. For employees assigned to fire brigades before September 15, 1980, this paragraph is effective on September 15, 1990. For employees assigned to fire brigades on or after September 15, 1980, this paragraph is effective December 15, 1980.

1910.156(c)

Training and education.

1910.156(c)(1)

The employer shall provide training and education for all fire brigade members commensurate with those duties and functions that fire brigade members are expected to perform. Such training and education shall be provided to fire brigade members before they perform fire brigade emergency activities. Fire brigade leaders and training instructors shall be provided with training and education which is more comprehensive than that provided to the general membership of the fire brigade.

..1910.156(c)(2)

1910.156(c)(2)

The employer shall assure that training and education is conducted frequently enough to assure that each member of the fire brigade is able to perform the member’s assigned duties and functions satisfactorily and in a safe manner so as not to endanger fire brigade members or other employees. All fire brigade members shall be provided with training at least annually. In addition, fire brigade members who are expected to perform interior structural fire fighting shall be provided with an education session or training at least quarterly.

1910.156(c)(3)

The quality of the training and education program for fire brigade members shall be similar to those conducted by such fire training schools as the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute; Iowa Fire Service Extension; West Virginia Fire Service Extension; Georgia Fire Academy, New York State Department, Fire Prevention and Control; Louisiana State University Firemen Training Program, or Washington State’s Fire Service Training Commission for Vocational Education. (For example, for the oil refinery industry, with its unique hazards, the training and education program for those fire brigade members shall be similar to those conducted by Texas A & M University, Lamar University, Reno Fire School, or the Delaware State Fire School.)

1910.156(c)(4)

The employer shall inform fire brigade members about special hazards such as storage and use of flammable liquids and gases, toxic chemicals, radioactive sources, and water reactive substances, to which they may be exposed during fire and other emergencies. The fire brigade members shall also be advised of any changes that occur in relation to the special hazards. The employer shall develop and make available for inspection by fire brigade members, written procedures that describe the actions to be taken in situations involving the special hazards and shall include these in the training and education program.

..1910.156(d)

1910.156(d)

Fire fighting equipment. The employer shall maintain and inspect, at least annually, fire fighting equipment to assure the safe operational condition of the equipment. Portable fire extinguishers and respirators shall be inspected at least monthly. Fire fighting equipment that is in damaged or unserviceable condition shall be removed from service and replaced.

1910.156(e)

Protective clothing. The following requirements apply to those employees who perform interior structural fire fighting. The requirements do not apply to employees who use fire extinguishers or standpipe systems to control or extinguish fires only in the incipient stage.

1910.156(e)(1)

General.

1910.156(e)(1)(i)

The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of protective clothing which complies with the requirements of this paragraph. The employer shall assure that protective clothing ordered or purchased after July 1, 1981, meets the requirements contained in this paragraph. As the new equipment is provided, the employer shall assure that all fire brigade members wear the equipment when performing interior structural fire fighting. After July 1, 1985, the employer shall assure that all fire brigade members wear protective clothing meeting the requirements of this paragraph when performing interior structural fire fighting.

..1910.156(e)(1)(ii)

1910.156(e)(1)(ii)

The employer shall assure that protective clothing protects the head, body, and extremities, and consists of at least the following components: foot and leg protection; hand protection; body protection; eye, face and head protection.

1910.156(e)(2)

Foot and leg protection.

1910.156(e)(2)(i)

Foot and leg protection shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section, and may be achieved by either of the following methods:

1910.156(e)(2)(i)(A)

Fully extended boots which provide protection for the legs; or

1910.156(e)(2)(i)(B)

Protective shoes or boots worn in combination with protective trousers that meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

1910.156(e)(2)(ii)

Protective footwear shall meet the requirements of 1910.136 for Class 75 footwear. In addition, protective footwear shall be water-resistant for at least 5 inches (12.7 cm) above the bottom of the heel and shall be equipped with slip-resistant outer soles.

1910.156(e)(2)(iii)

Protective footwear shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (1) of Appendix E, and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsole by a size 8D common nail when at least 300 pounds (1330 N) of static force is applied to the nail.

1910.156(e)(3)

Body protection.

1910.156(e)(3)(i)

Body protection shall be coordinated with foot and leg protection to ensure full body protection for the wearer. This shall be achieved by one of the following methods:

..1910.156(e)(3)(i)(A)

1910.156(e)(3)(i)(A)

Wearing of a fire-resistive coat meeting the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section in combination with fully extended boots meeting the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section; or

1910.156(e)(3)(i)(B)

Wearing of a fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers both of which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section.

1910.156(e)(3)(ii)

The performance, construction, and testing of fire-resistive coats and protective trousers shall be at least equivalent to the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard NFPA No. 1971-1975, “Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting,” which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6, (See Appendix D to Subpart L) with the following permissible variations from those requirements:

1910.156(e)(3)(ii)(A)

Tearing strength of the outer shell shall be a minimum of 8 pounds (35.6 N) in any direction when tested in accordance with paragraph (2) of Appendix E; and

1910.156(e)(3)(ii)(B)

The outer shell may discolor but shall not separate or melt when placed in a forced air laboratory oven at a temperature of 500 deg. F (260 deg. C) for a period of five minutes. After cooling to ambient temperature and using the test method specified in paragraph (3) of Appendix E, char length shall not exceed 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) and after-flame shall not exceed 2.0 seconds.

..1910.156(e)(4)

1910.156(e)(4)

Hand protection.

1910.156(e)(4)(i)

Hand protection shall consist of protective gloves or glove system which will provide protection against cut, puncture, and heat penetration. Gloves or glove system shall be tested in accordance with the test methods contained in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 1976 publication, “The Development of Criteria for Fire Fighter’s Gloves; Vol. II, Part II: Test Methods,” which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6, (See Appendix D to Subpart L) and shall meet the following criteria for cut, puncture, and heat penetration:

1910.156(e)(4)(i)(A)

Materials used for gloves shall resist surface cut by a blade with an edge having a 60 deg. included angle and a .001 inch (.0025 cm.) radius, under an applied force of 16 lbf (72N), and at a slicing velocity of greater or equal to 60 in/min (2.5 cm./sec);

1910.156(e)(4)(i)(B)

Materials used for the palm and palm side of the fingers shall resist puncture by a penetrometer (simulating a 4d lath nail), under an applied force of 13.2 lbf (60N), and at a velocity greater or equal to 20 in/min (.85 cm./sec); and

1910.156(e)(4)(i)(C)

The temperature inside the palm and gripping surface of the fingers of gloves shall not exceed 135 deg. F (57 deg. C) when gloves or glove system are exposed to 932 deg. F (500 deg. C) for five seconds at 4 psi (28 kPa) pressure.

1910.156(e)(4)(ii)

Exterior materials of gloves shall be flame resistant and shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (3) of Appendix E. Maximum allowable afterflame shall be 2.0 seconds, and the maximum char length shall be 4.0 inches (10.2 cm).

..1910.156(e)(4)(iii)

1910.156(e)(4)(iii)

When design of the fire-resistive coat does not otherwise provide protection for the wrists, protective gloves shall have wristlets of at least 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) in length to protect the wrist area when the arms are extended upward and outward from the body.

1910.156(e)(5)

Head, eye and face protection.

1910.156(e)(5)(i)

Head protection shall consist of a protective head device with ear flaps and chin strap which meet the performance, construction, and testing requirements of the National Fire Safety and Research Office of the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce (now known as the U.S. Fire Administration), which are contained in “Model Performance Criteria for Structural Firefighters’ Helmets” (August 1977) which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6, (See Appendix D to Subpart L).

1910.156(e)(5)(ii)

Protective eye and face devices which comply with 1910.133 shall be used by fire brigade members when performing operations where the hazards of flying or falling materials which may cause eye and face injuries are present. Protective eye and face devices provided as accessories to protective head devices (face shields) are permitted when such devices meet the requirements of 1910.133.

1910.156(e)(5)(iii)

Full facepieces, helmets, or hoods of breathing apparatus which meet the requirements of 1910.134 and paragraph (f) of this section, shall be acceptable as meeting the eye and face protection requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section.

..1910.156(f)

1910.156(f)

Respiratory protection.

1910.156(f)(1)

General.

1910.156(f)(1)(i)

The employer must ensure that respirators are provided to, and used by, fire brigade members, and that the respirators meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134 and this paragraph.

1910.156(f)(1)(ii)

Approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full-facepiece, or with approved helmet or hood configuration, shall be provided to and worn by fire brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic products of combustion or an oxygen deficiency may be present.

Such apparatus shall also be worn during emergency situations involving toxic substances.

1910.156(f)(1)(iii)

Approved self-contained breathing apparatus may be equipped with either a “buddy-breathing” device or a quick disconnect valve, even if these devices are not certified by NIOSH. If these accessories are used, they shall not cause damage to the apparatus, or restrict the air flow of the apparatus, or obstruct the normal operation of the apparatus.

1910.156(f)(1)(iv)

Approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used with approved cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity and pressure rating. All compressed air cylinders used with self-contained breathing apparatus shall meet DOT and NIOSH criteria.

..1910.156(f)(1)(v)

1910.156(f)(1)(v)

Self-contained breathing apparatuses must have a minimum service-life rating of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, except for escape self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBAs) used only for emergency escape purposes.

1910.156(f)(1)(vi)

Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided with an indicator which automatically sounds an audible alarm when the remaining service life of the apparatus is reduced to within a range of 20 to 25 percent of its rated service time.

1910.156(f)(2)

Positive-pressure breathing apparatus.

1910.156(f)(2)(i)

The employer shall assure that self-contained breathing apparatus ordered or purchased after July 1, 1981, for use by fire brigade members performing interior structural fire fighting operations, are of the pressure-demand or other positive-pressure type. Effective July 1, 1983, only pressure-demand or other positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be worn by fire brigade members performing interior structural fire fighting.

1910.156(f)(2)(ii)

This paragraph does not prohibit the use of a self-contained breathing apparatus where the apparatus can be switched from a demand to a positive-pressure mode. However, such apparatus shall be in the positive-pressure mode when fire brigade members are performing interior structural fire fighting operations.

..1910.156(f)(2)(iii)

1910.156(f)(2)(iii)

[Removed]
1910.157(a)

Scope and application. The requirements of this section apply to the placement, use, maintenance, and testing of portable fire extinguishers provided for the use of employees. Paragraph (d) of this section does not apply to extinguishers provided for employee use on the outside of workplace buildings or structures. Where extinguishers are provided but are not intended for employee use and the employer has an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the requirements of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section apply.

1910.157(b)

Exemptions.

1910.157(b)(1)

Where the employer has established and implemented a written fire safety policy which requires the immediate and total evacuation of employees from the workplace upon the sounding of a fire alarm signal and which includes an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, and when extinguishers are not available in the workplace, the employer is exempt from all requirements of this section unless a specific standard in part 1910 requires that a portable fire extinguisher be provided.

..1910.157(b)(2)

1910.157(b)(2)

Where the employer has an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of 1910.38 which designates certain employees to be the only employees authorized to use the available portable fire extinguishers, and which requires all other employees in the fire area to immediately evacuate the affected work area upon the sounding of the fire alarm, the employer is exempt from the distribution requirements in paragraph (d) of this section.

1910.157(c)

General requirements.

1910.157(c)(1)

The employer shall provide portable fire extinguishers and shall mount, locate and identify them so that they are readily accessible to employees without subjecting the employees to possible injury.

1910.157(c)(2)

Only approved portable fire extinguishers shall be used to meet the requirements of this section.

1910.157(c)(3)

The employer shall not provide or make available in the workplace portable fire extinguishers using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents.

1910.157(c)(4)

The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in their designated places at all times except during use.

1910.157(c)(5)

The employer shall remove from service all soldered or riveted shell self-generating soda acid or self-generating foam or gas cartridge water type portable fire extinguishers which are operated by inverting the extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to expel the agent.

..1910.157(d)

1910.157(d)

Selection and distribution.

1910.157(d)(1)

Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided for employee use and selected and distributed based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and on the size and degree of hazard which would affect their use.

1910.157(d)(2)

The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class A fires so that the travel distance for employees to any extinguisher is 75 feet (22.9 m) or less.

1910.157(d)(3)

The employer may use uniformly spaced standpipe systems or hose stations connected to a sprinkler system installed for emergency use by employees instead of Class A portable fire extinguishers, provided that such systems meet the respective requirements of 1910.158 or 1910.159, that they provide total coverage of the area to be protected, and that employees are trained at least annually in their use.

1910.157(d)(4)

The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class B fires so that the travel distance from the Class B hazard area to any extinguisher is 50 feet (15.2 m) or less.

1910.157(d)(5)

The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers used for Class C hazards on the basis of the appropriate pattern for the existing Class A or Class B hazards.

1910.157(d)(6)

The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers or other containers of Class D extinguishing agent for use by employees so that the travel distance from the combustible metal working area to any extinguishing agent is 75 feet (22.9 m) or less. Portable fire extinguishers for Class D hazards are required in those combustible metal working areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every two weeks.

1910.157(e)

Inspection, maintenance and testing.

1910.157(e)(1)

The employer shall be responsible for the inspection, maintenance and testing of all portable fire extinguishers in the workplace.

1910.157(e)(2)

Portable extinguishers or hose used in lieu thereof under paragraph (d)(3) of this section shall be visually inspected monthly.

1910.157(e)(3)

The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are subjected to an annual maintenance check. Stored pressure extinguishers do not require an internal examination. The employer shall record the annual maintenance date and retain this record for one year after the last entry or the life of the shell, whichever is less. The record shall be available to the Assistant Secretary upon request.

1910.157(e)(4)

The employer shall assure that stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test are emptied and subjected to applicable maintenance procedures every 6 years. Dry chemical extinguishers having non-refillable disposable containers are exempt from this requirement. When recharging or hydrostatic testing is performed, the 6-year requirement begins from that date.

..1910.157(e)(5)

1910.157(e)(5)

The employer shall assure that alternate equivalent protection is provided when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance and recharging.

1910.157(f)

Hydrostatic testing.

1910.157(f)(1)

The employer shall assure that hydrostatic testing is performed by trained persons with suitable testing equipment and facilities.

1910.157(f)(2)

The employer shall assure that portable extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the intervals listed in Table L-1 of this section, except under any of the following conditions:

1910.157(f)(2)(i)

When the unit has been repaired by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of patching compounds;

1910.157(f)(2)(ii)

When the cylinder or shell threads are damaged;

1910.157(f)(2)(iii)

When there is corrosion that has caused pitting, including corrosion under removable name plate assemblies;

1910.157(f)(2)(iv)

When the extinguisher has been burned in a fire; or

1910.157(f)(2)(v)

When a calcium chloride extinguishing agent has been used in a stainless steel shell.

1910.157(f)(3)

In addition to an external visual examination, the employer shall assure that an internal examination of cylinders and shells to be tested is made prior to the hydrostatic tests.

TABLE L-1

Type of extinguishers Test interval (years)
Soda acid (soldered brass shells) (until 1/1/82)
Soda acid (stainless steel shell)
Cartridge operated water and/or antifreeze
Stored pressure water and/or antifreeze
Wetting agent
Foam (soldered brass shells) (until 1/1/82)
Foam (stainless steel shell)
Aqueous Film Forming foam (AFFF)
Loaded stream
Dry chemical with stainless steel
Carbon Dioxide
Dry chemical, stored pressure, with mild steel, brazed brass or aluminum shells
Dry chemical, cartridge or cylinder operated, with mild steel shells
Halon 1211
Halon 1301
Dry powder, cartridge or cylinder operated with mild steel shells
(1)
5
5
5
5
(1)
5
5
5
5
5
12

12
12
12
12

1Extinguishers having shells constructed of copper or brass joined by soft solder or rivets shall not be hydrostatically tested and shall be removed from service by January 1, 1982. (Not permitted)

..1910.157(f)(4)

1910.157(f)(4)

The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are hydrostatically tested whenever they show new evidence of corrosion or mechanical injury, except under the conditions listed in paragraphs (f)(2)(i)-(v) of this section.

1910.157(f)(5)

The employer shall assure that hydrostatic tests are performed on extinguisher hose assemblies which are equipped with a shut-off nozzle at the discharge end of the hose. The test interval shall be the same as specified for the extinguisher on which the hose is installed.

1910.157(f)(6)

The employer shall assure that carbon dioxide hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle are hydrostatically tested at 1,250 psi (8,620 kPa).

1910.157(f)(7)

The employer shall assure that dry chemical and dry powder hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle are hydrostatically tested at 300 psi (2,070 kPa).

1910.157(f)(8)

Hose assemblies passing a hydrostatic test do not require any type of recording or stamping.

1910.157(f)(9)

The employer shall assure that hose assemblies for carbon dioxide extinguishers that require a hydrostatic test are tested within a protective cage device.

..1910.157(f)(10)

1910.157(f)(10)

The employer shall assure that carbon dioxide extinguishers and nitrogen or carbon dioxide cylinders used with wheeled extinguishers are tested every 5 years at 5/3 of the service pressure as stamped into the cylinder. Nitrogen cylinders which comply with 49 CFR 173.34(e)(15) may be hydrostatically tested every 10 years.

1910.157(f)(11)

The employer shall assure that all stored pressure and Halon 1211 types of extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the factory test pressure not to exceed two times the service pressure.

1910.157(f)(12)

The employer shall assure that acceptable self-generating type soda acid and foam extinguishers are tested at 350 psi (2,410 kPa).

1910.157(f)(13)

Air or gas pressure may not be used for hydrostatic testing.

1910.157(f)(14)

Extinguisher shells, cylinders, or cartridges which fail a hydrostatic pressure test, or which are not fit for testing shall be removed from service and from the workplace.

1910.157(f)(15)(i)

The equipment for testing compressed gas type cylinders shall be of the water jacket type. The equipment shall be provided with an expansion indicator which operates with an accuracy within one percent of the total expansion or .1cc (.1mL) of liquid.

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)

The equipment for testing non-compressed gas type cylinders shall consist of the following:

..1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(A)

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(A)

A hydrostatic test pump, hand or power operated, capable of producing not less than 150 percent of the test pressure, which shall include appropriate check valves and fittings;

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(B)

A flexible connection for attachment to fittings to test through the extinguisher nozzle, test bonnet, or hose outlet, as is applicable; and

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(C)

A protective cage or barrier for personal protection of the tester, designed to provide visual observation of the extinguisher under test.

1910.157(f)(16)

The employer shall maintain and provide upon request to the Assistant Secretary evidence that the required hydrostatic testing of fire extinguishers has been performed at the time intervals shown in Table L-1. Such evidence shall be in the form of a certification record which includes the date of the test, the signature of the person who performed the test and the serial number, or other identifier, of the fire extinguisher that was tested. Such records shall be kept until the extinguisher is hydrostatically retested at the time interval specified in Table L-1 or until the extinguisher is taken out of service, whichever comes first.

1910.157(g)

Training and education.

1910.157(g)(1)

Where the employer has provided portable fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also provide an educational program to familiarize employees with the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipient stage fire fighting.

1910.157(g)(2)

The employer shall provide the education required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section upon initial employment and at least annually thereafter.

1910.157(g)(3)

The employer shall provide employees who have been designated to use fire fighting equipment as part of an emergency action plan with training in the use of the appropriate equipment.

1910.157(g)(4)

The employer shall provide the training required in paragraph (g)(3) of this section upon initial assignment to the designated group of employees and at least annually thereafter.

1910.158(a)

Scope and application –

1910.158(a)(1)

Scope. This section applies to all small hose, Class II, and Class III standpipe systems installed to meet the requirements of a particular OSHA standard.

1910.158(a)(2)

Exception. This section does not apply to Class I standpipe systems.

1910.158(b)

Protection of standpipes. The employer shall assure that standpipes are located or otherwise protected against mechanical damage. Damaged standpipes shall be repaired promptly.

1910.158(c)

Equipment –

1910.158(c)(1)

Reels and cabinets. Where reels or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed to facilitate prompt use of the hose valves, the hose, and other equipment at the time of a fire or other emergency. The employer shall assure that the reels and cabinets are conspicuously identified and used only for fire equipment.

..1910.158(c)(2)

1910.158(c)(2)

Hose outlets and connections.

1910.158(c)(2)(i)

The employer shall assure that hose outlets and connections are located high enough above the floor to avoid being obstructed and to be accessible to employees.

1910.158(c)(2)(ii)

The employer shall standardize screw threads or provide appropriate adapters throughout the system and assure that the hose connections are compatible with those used on the supporting fire equipment.

1910.158(c)(3)

Hose.

1910.158(c)(3)(i)

The employer shall assure that every 1 1/2 inch (3.8 cm) or smaller hose outlet used to meet this standard is equipped with hose connected and ready for use. In extremely cold climates where such installation may result in damaged equipment, the hose may be stored in another location provided it is readily available and can be connected when needed.

1910.158(c)(3)(ii)

Standpipe systems installed after January 1, 1981, for use by employees, shall be equipped with lined hose. Unlined hose may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective date of this standard, unlined hose which becomes unserviceable shall be replaced with lined hose.

..1910.158(c)(3)(iii)

1910.158(c)(3)(iii)

The employer shall provide hose of such length that friction loss resulting from water flowing through the hose will not decrease the pressure at the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa).

1910.158(c)(4)

Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is equipped with shut-off type nozzles.

1910.158(d)

Water supply. The minimum water supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for the use of employees, shall be sufficient to provide 100 gallons per minute (6.3 l/s) for a period of at least thirty minutes.

1910.158(e)

Tests and maintenance –

1910.158(e)(1)

Acceptance tests.

1910.158(e)(1)(i)

The employer shall assure that the piping of Class II and Class III systems installed after January 1, 1981, including yard piping, is hydrostatically tested for a period of at least 2 hours at not less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when such pressure is greater than 150 psi (1030 kPa).

..1910.158(e)(1)(ii)

1910.158(e)(1)(ii)

The employer shall assure that hose on all standpipe systems installed after January 1, 1981, is hydrostatically tested with couplings in place, at a pressure of not less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), before it is placed in service. This pressure shall be maintained for at least 15 seconds and not more than one minute during which time the hose shall not leak nor shall any jacket thread break during the test.

1910.158(e)(2)

Maintenance.

1910.158(e)(2)(i)

The employer shall assure that water supply tanks are kept filled to the proper level except during repairs. When pressure tanks are used, the employer shall assure that proper pressure is maintained at all times except during repairs.

1910.158(e)(2)(ii)

The employer shall assure that valves in the main piping connections to the automatic sources of water supply are kept fully open at all times except during repair.

1910.158(e)(2)(iii)

The employer shall assure that hose systems are inspected at least annually and after each use to assure that all of the equipment and hose are in place, available for use, and in serviceable condition.

1910.158(e)(2)(iv)

When the system or any portion thereof is found not to be serviceable, the employer shall remove it from service immediately and replace it with equivalent protection such as extinguishers and fire watches.

..1910.158(e)(2)(v)

1910.158(e)(2)(v)

The employer shall assure that hemp or linen hose on existing systems is unracked, physically inspected for deterioration, and reracked using a different fold pattern at least annually. The employer shall assure that defective hose is replaced in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii).

1910.158(e)(2)(vi)

The employer shall designate trained persons to conduct all inspections required under this section.

1910.159(a)

Scope and application.

1910.159(a)(1)

The requirements of this section apply to all automatic sprinkler systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard.

1910.159(a)(2)

For automatic sprinkler systems used to meet OSHA requirements and installed prior to the effective date of this standard, compliance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or the National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU) standard in effect at the time of the system’s installation will be acceptable as compliance with this section.

1910.159(b)

Exemptions. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in workplaces, but not required by OSHA, are exempt from the requirements of this section.

..1910.159(c)

1910.159(c)

General requirements –

1910.159(c)(1)

Design.

1910.159(c)(1)(i)

All automatic sprinkler designs used to comply with this standard shall provide the necessary discharge patterns, densities, and water flow characteristics for complete coverage in a particular workplace or zoned subdivision of the workplace.

1910.159(c)(1)(ii)

The employer shall assure that only approved equipment and devices are used in the design and installation of automatic sprinkler systems used to comply with this standard.

1910.159(c)(2)

Maintenance. The employer shall properly maintain an automatic sprinkler system installed to comply with this section. The employer shall assure that a main drain flow test is performed on each system annually. The inspector’s test valve shall be opened at least every two years to assure that the sprinkler system operates properly.

1910.159(c)(3)

Acceptance tests. The employer shall conduct proper acceptance tests on sprinkler systems installed for employee protection after January 1, 1981, and record the dates of such tests. Proper acceptance tests include the following:

1910.159(c)(3)(i)

Flushing of underground connections;

1910.159(c)(3)(ii)

Hydrostatic tests of piping in system;

1910.159(c)(3)(iii)

Air tests in dry-pipe systems;

1910.159(c)(3)(iv)

Dry-pipe valve operation; and

1910.159(c)(3)(v)

Test of drainage facilities.

..1910.159(c)(4)

1910.159(c)(4)

Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic water supply is out of service, except for systems of 20 or fewer sprinklers.

1910.159(c)(5)

Hose connections for fire fighting use. The employer may attach hose connections for fire fighting use to wet pipe sprinkler systems provided that the water supply satisfies the combined design demand for sprinklers and standpipes.

1910.159(c)(6)

Protection of piping. The employer shall assure that automatic sprinkler system piping is protected against freezing and exterior surface corrosion.

1910.159(c)(7)

Drainage. The employer shall assure that all dry sprinkler pipes and fittings are installed so that the system may be totally drained.

1910.159(c)(8)

Sprinklers.

1910.159(c)(8)(i)

The employer shall assure that only approved sprinklers are used on systems.

1910.159(c)(8)(ii)

The employer may not use older style sprinklers to replace standard sprinklers without a complete engineering review of the altered part of the system.

1910.159(c)(8)(iii)

The employer shall assure that sprinklers are protected from mechanical damage.

..1910.159(c)(9)

1910.159(c)(9)

Sprinkler alarms. On all sprinkler systems having more than twenty (20) sprinklers, the employer shall assure that a local waterflow alarm is provided which sounds an audible signal on the premises upon water flow through the system equal to the flow from a single sprinkler.

1910.159(c)(10)

Sprinkler spacing. The employer shall assure that sprinklers are spaced to provide a maximum protection area per sprinkler, a minimum of interference to the discharge pattern by building or structural members or building contents and suitable sensitivity to possible fire hazards. The minimum vertical clearance between sprinklers and material below shall be 18 inches (45.7 cm).

1910.159(c)(11)

Hydraulically designed systems. The employer shall assure that hydraulically designed automatic sprinkler systems or portions thereof are identified and that the location, number of sprinklers in the hydraulically designed section, and the basis of the design is indicated. Central records may be used in lieu of signs at sprinkler valves provided the records are available for inspection and copying by the Assistant Secretary.

1910.160(a)

Scope and application.

1910.160(a)(1)

This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic sprinkler systems which are covered by 1910.159.

1910.160(a)(2)

This section also applies to fixed systems not installed to meet a particular OSHA standard, but which, by means of their operation, may expose employees to possible injury, death, or adverse health consequences caused by the extinguishing agent. Such systems are only subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b)(4) through (b)(7) and (c) of this section.

1910.160(a)(3)

Systems otherwise covered in paragraph (a)(2) of this section which are installed in areas with no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section.

1910.160(b)

General requirements.

1910.160(b)(1)

Fixed extinguishing system components and agents shall be designed and approved for use on the specific fire hazards they are expected to control or extinguish.

..1910.160(b)(2)

1910.160(b)(2)

If for any reason a fixed extinguishing system becomes inoperable, the employer shall notify employees and take the necessary temporary precautions to assure their safety until the system is restored to operating order. Any defects or impairments shall be properly corrected by trained personnel.

1910.160(b)(3)

The employer shall provide a distinctive alarm or signaling system which complies with 1910.165 and is capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels, on all extinguishing systems in those portions of the workplace covered by the extinguishing system to indicate when the extinguishing system is discharging. Discharge alarms are not required on systems where discharge is immediately recognizable.

1910.160(b)(4)

The employer shall provide effective safeguards to warn employees against entry into discharge areas where the atmosphere remains hazardous to employee safety or health.

1910.160(b)(5)

The employer shall post hazard warning or caution signs at the entrance to, and inside of, areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems which use agents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety and health.

1910.160(b)(6)

The employer shall assure that fixed systems are inspected annually by a person knowledgeable in the design and function of the system to assure that the system is maintained in good operating condition.

..1910.160(b)(7)

1910.160(b)(7)

The employer shall assure that the weight and pressure of refillable containers is checked at least semi-annually. If the container shows a loss in net content or weight of more than 5 percent, or a loss in pressure of more than 10 percent, it shall be subjected to maintenance.

1910.160(b)(8)

The employer shall assure that factory charged nonrefillable containers which have no means of pressure indication are weighed at least semi-annually. If a container shows a loss in net weight or more than 5 percent it shall be replaced.

1910.160(b)(9)

The employer shall assure that inspection and maintenance dates are recorded on the container, on a tag attached to the container, or in a central location. A record of the last semi-annual check shall be maintained until the container is checked again or for the life of the container, whichever is less.

1910.160(b)(10)

The employer shall train employees designated to inspect, maintain, operate, or repair fixed extinguishing systems and annually review their training to keep them up-to-date in the functions they are to perform.

1910.160(b)(11)

The employer shall not use chlorobromomethane or carbon tetrachloride as an extinguishing agent where employees may be exposed.

1910.160(b)(12)

The employer shall assure that systems installed in the presence of corrosive atmospheres are constructed of non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion.

..1910.160(b)(13)

1910.160(b)(13)

Automatic detection equipment shall be approved, installed and maintained in accordance with 1910.164.

1910.160(b)(14)

The employer shall assure that all systems designed for and installed in areas with climatic extremes shall operate effectively at the expected extreme temperatures.

1910.160(b)(15)

The employer shall assure that at least one manual station is provided for discharge activation of each fixed extinguishing system.

1910.160(b)(16)

The employer shall assure that manual operating devices are identified as to the hazard against which they will provide protection.

1910.160(b)(17)

The employer shall provide and assure the use of the personal protective equipment needed for immediate rescue of employees trapped in hazardous atmospheres created by an agent discharge.

1910.160(c)

Total flooding systems with potential health and safety hazards to employees.

1910.160(c)(1)

The employer shall provide an emergency action plan in accordance with 1910.38 for each area within a workplace that is protected by a total flooding system which provides agent concentrations exceeding the maximum safe levels set forth in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(6) of 1910.162.

..1910.160(c)(2)

1910.160(c)(2)

Systems installed in areas where employees cannot enter during or after the system’s operation are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

1910.160(c)(3)

On all total flooding systems the employer shall provide a pre-discharge employee alarm which complies with 1910.165, and is capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels before the system discharges, which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.160(c)(4)

The employer shall provide automatic actuation of total flooding systems by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected with a pre-discharge employee alarm system to give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.161(a)

Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160.

1910.161(b)

Specific requirements.

1910.161(b)(1)

The employer shall assure that dry chemical agents are compatible with any foams or wetting agents with which they are used.

1910.161(b)(2)

The employer may not mix together dry chemical extinguishing agents of different compositions. The employer shall assure that dry chemical systems are refilled with the chemical stated on the approval nameplate or an equivalent compatible material.

1910.161(b)(3)

When dry chemical discharge may obscure vision, the employer shall provide a pre-discharge employee alarm which complies with 1910.165 and which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

..1910.161(b)(4)

1910.161(b)(4)

The employer shall sample the dry chemical supply of all but stored pressure systems at least annually to assure that the dry chemical supply is free of moisture which may cause the supply to cake or form lumps.

1910.161(b)(5)

The employer shall assure that the rate of application of dry chemicals is such that the designed concentration of the system will be reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge.

1910.162(a)

Scope and application –

1910.162(a)(1)

Scope. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using a gas as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160. In some cases, the gas may be in a liquid state during storage.

1910.162(a)(2)

Application. The requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(4) through (b)(6) shall apply only to total flooding systems.

1910.162(b)

Specific requirements.

1910.162(b)(1)

Agents used for initial supply and replenishment shall be of the type approved for the system’s application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed to remove excess water and oil.

1910.162(b)(2)

Except during overhaul, the employer shall assure that the designed concentration of gaseous agents is maintained until the fire has been extinguished or is under control.

..1910.162(b)(3)

1910.162(b)(3)

The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levels of gaseous agent or its decomposition products.

1910.162(b)(4)

The employer shall assure that the designed extinguishing concentration is reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge except for Halon systems which must achieve design concentration within 10 seconds.

1910.162(b)(5)

The employer shall provide a distinctive pre-discharge employee alarm capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels when agent design concentrations exceed the maximum safe level for employee exposure. A pre-discharge employee alarm for alerting employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design concentration of 4 percent or greater and for Halon 1301 systems with a design concentration of 10 percent or greater. The pre-discharge employee alarm shall provide employees time to safely exit the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.162(b)(6)

1910.162(b)(6)(i)

Where egress from an area cannot be accomplished within one minute, the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in concentrations greater than 7 percent.

..1910.162(b)(6)(ii)

1910.162(b)(6)(ii)

Where egress takes greater than 30 seconds but less than one minute, the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in a concentration greater than 10 percent.

1910.162(b)(6)(iii)

Halon 1301 concentrations greater than 10 percent are only permitted in areas not normally occupied by employees provided that any employee in the area can escape within 30 seconds. The employer shall assure that no unprotected employees enter the area during agent discharge.

1910.163(a)

Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160. This section does not apply to automatic sprinkler systems which are covered under 1910.159.

1910.163(b)

Specific requirements.

1910.163(b)(1)

The employer shall assure that foam and water spray systems are designed to be effective in at least controlling fire in the protected area or on protected equipment.

1910.163(b)(2)

The employer shall assure that drainage of water spray systems is directed away from areas where employees are working and that no emergency egress is permitted through the drainage path.

1910.164(a)

Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection systems installed to meet the requirements of a particular OSHA standard.

1910.164(b)

Installation and restoration.

1910.164(b)(1)

The employer shall assure that all devices and equipment constructed and installed to comply with this standard are approved for the purpose for which they are intended.

1910.164(b)(2)

The employer shall restore all fire detection systems and components to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare detection devices and components which are normally destroyed in the process of detecting fires shall be available on the premises or from a local supplier in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of the system.

1910.164(c)

Maintenance and testing.

1910.164(c)(1)

The employer shall maintain all systems in an operable condition except during repairs or maintenance.

..1910.164(c)(2)

1910.164(c)(2)

The employer shall assure that fire detectors and fire detection systems are tested and adjusted as often as needed to maintain proper reliability and operating condition except that factory calibrated detectors need not be adjusted after installation.

1910.164(c)(3)

The employer shall assure that pneumatic and hydraulic operated detection systems installed after January 1, 1981, are equipped with supervised systems.

1910.164(c)(4)

The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of fire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivity adjustments are performed by a trained person knowledgeable in the operations and functions of the system.

1910.164(c)(5)

The employer shall also assure that fire detectors that need to be cleaned of dirt, dust, or other particulates in order to be fully operational are cleaned at regular periodic intervals.

1910.164(d)

Protection of fire detectors.

1910.164(d)(1)

The employer shall assure that fire detection equipment installed outdoors or in the presence of corrosive atmospheres be protected from corrosion. The employer shall provide a canopy, hood, or other suitable protection for detection equipment requiring protection from the weather.

1910.164(d)(2)

The employer shall locate or otherwise protect detection equipment so that it is protected from mechanical or physical impact which might render it inoperable.

..1910.164(d)(3)

1910.164(d)(3)

The employer shall assure that detectors are supported independently of their attachment to wires or tubing.

1910.164(e)

Response time.

1910.164(e)(1)

The employer shall assure that fire detection systems installed for the purpose of actuating fire extinguishment or suppression systems shall be designed to operate in time to control or extinguish a fire.

1910.164(e)(2)

The employer shall assure that fire detection systems installed for the purpose of employee alarm and evacuation be designed and installed to provide a warning for emergency action and safe escape of employees.

1910.164(e)(3)

The employer shall not delay alarms or devices initiated by fire detector actuation for more than 30 seconds unless such delay is necessary for the immediate safety of employees. When such delay is necessary, it shall be addressed in an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of 1910.38.

1910.164(f)

Number, location and spacing of detecting devices. The employer shall assure that the number, spacing and location of fire detectors is based upon design data obtained from field experience, or tests, engineering surveys, the manufacturer’s recommendations, or a recognized testing laboratory listing.

1910.165(a)

Scope and application.

1910.165(a)(1)

This section applies to all emergency employee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. This section does not apply to those discharge or supervisory alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression, alarm or detection systems unless they are intended to be employee alarm systems.

1910.165(a)(2)

The requirements in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local fire alarm signaling systems used for alerting employees regardless of the other functions of the system.

1910.165(a)(3)

All pre-discharge employee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHA standard shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) through (4), (c), and (d)(1) of this section.

1910.165(b)

General requirements.

1910.165(b)(1)

The employee alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both.

..1910.165(b)(2)

1910.165(b)(2)

The employee alarm shall be capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the workplace. Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who would not otherwise be able to recognize the audible or visual alarm.

1910.165(b)(3)

The employee alarm shall be distinctive and recognizable as a signal to evacuate the work area or to perform actions designated under the emergency action plan.

1910.165(b)(4)

The employer shall explain to each employee the preferred means of reporting emergencies, such as manual pull box alarms, public address systems, radio or telephones. The employer shall post emergency telephone numbers near telephones, or employee notice boards, and other conspicuous locations when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency messages shall have priority over all non-emergency messages.

1910.165(b)(5)

The employer shall establish procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm. Such workplaces need not have a back-up system.

1910.165(c)

Installation and restoration.

1910.165(c)(1)

The employer shall assure that all devices, components, combinations of devices or systems constructed and installed to comply with this standard are approved. Steam whistles, air horns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meeting the requirements of this section are considered to meet this requirement for approval.

1910.165(c)(2)

The employer shall assure that all employee alarm systems are restored to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destruction shall be available in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of the system.

1910.165(d)

Maintenance and testing.

..1910.165(d)(1)

1910.165(d)(1)

The employer shall assure that all employee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except when undergoing repairs or maintenance.

1910.165(d)(2)

The employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of non-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. A different actuation device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation device system so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests.

1910.165(d)(3)

The employer shall maintain or replace power supplies as often as is necessary to assure a fully operational condition. Back-up means of alarm, such as employee runners or telephones, shall be provided when systems are out of service.

1910.165(d)(4)

The employer shall assure that employee alarm circuitry installed after January 1, 1981, which is capable of being supervised is supervised and that it will provide positive notification to assigned personnel whenever a deficiency exists in the system. The employer shall assure that all supervised employee alarm systems are tested at least annually for reliability and adequacy.

1910.165(d)(5)

The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of employee alarms are done by persons trained in the designed operation and functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system.

1910.165(e)

Manual operation. The employer shall assure that manually operated actuation devices for use in conjunction with employee alarms are unobstructed, conspicuous and readily accessible.